BBC, British Broadcasting Corporation (Eng. British Broadcasting Corporation, BBC) - a complex of radio and television broadcasting in the UK. The Corporation carries out internal television and radio broadcasting, as well as external, conducted by the BBC World Service. The Corporation is not a state media, but is a public organization with a Board of Control, consisting of 12 Trustees appointed by the Queen.
Created on October 18, 1922 as the British Broadcasting Company (British Broadcasting Company) by a number of private corporations - Marconi's Wireless Telegraph Company (on February 14, 1922, it launched the first radio station in the UK on medium waves - 2MT, however, on January 17, 1923 closed), Metropolitan Vickers Electrical Company, Radio Communication Company, The British Thomson-Houston Company, The General Electric Company and Western Electric Company. In 1922-1924. The BBC launched a number of regional radio stations on medium wave - 2LO in London (November 14, 1922), 5IT in the West Midlands (November 15 of the same year), 2ZY in North West England (November 15), 5NO in North East England (24 December), 5WA in Wales (February 13, 1923), 5SC in Scotland (March 6 of that year), 2FL in Yorkshire and the Humber (November 16), 5PY in South West England (March 28, 1924), 2BE in North Ireland (September 16, 1924) and 5NG in East Anglia (September 16 of the same year).
On January 1, 1927, the BBC was nationalized and renamed the British Broadcasting Corporation.
On March 9, 1930, the BBC launched the BBC National Program radio station on long waves, regional radio stations were merged into the BBC Regional Program (regular programs were broadcast using a transmitter in Brookmans Park), in 1932 the BBC launched an international radio channel - BBC Empire Service.
From 1929 a transmitter in London was used. Baird's company started television production on August 2, 1932. Experimental television broadcasting was carried out using Byrd's electromechanical 30-line system.
In 1934 television broadcasting became regular, albeit limited. In 1936, the BBC's 405-line VHF broadcasts launched the BBC Television Service.
Before the break in broadcasting caused by the Second World War, the channel's audience numbered 25-40 thousand houses.
In 1939, the BBC National Program was closed, on its frequency the BBC launched the BBC Forces Program radio station (it was renamed the BBC General Forces Program in 1944), the BBC Regional Program was renamed the BBC Home Service, the BBC Empire Service became the BBC Overseas Service.
On July 29, 1945, the BBC replaced the BBC General Forces Program on its frequency with the BBC Light Program radio station. On March 26, 1946, the broadcasting of the Russian service of the BBC to the territory of the Soviet Union was launched (the first serious broadcast of the corporation in Russian was Stalin's conversation with American correspondents during World War II, when the BBC became a platform for promoting the joint military efforts of the Allies, and in particular, Great Britain and the USSR), but already in April 1949, jamming of BBC broadcasts began. Television broadcasting resumed in 1946 from the Alexandra Palace station. In the same year, the BBC launched its third longwave radio channel, the BBC Third Programme. In 1955 VHF versions of all three BBC radio stations were launched.
The BBC for a long time remained the only television network in the UK, but in 1955 it had a competitor - the commercial network ITV, broadcasting on meter waves in the 405 line standard. In broadcasting, the BBC's monopoly continued until the 1970s. A 1962 broadcasting committee report compared the two broadcasters, resulting in the BBC receiving good reviews and ITV being heavily criticized for its quality of programming. As a result, the BBC was allowed to open another channel.
BBC TV was renamed BBC1 in 1964, following the launch of BBC2, the UK's third-highest-rated channel in the UHF PAL standard (the second was ITV). A fire at Battersea Power Station caused an extensive blackout across London, which delayed the launch of the canal, scheduled for 20 April 1964. The opening of the channel took place by candlelight. BBC Two did not show "soap operas" or regular news.
In 1965, the BBC Overseas Service was renamed the BBC World Service. In the same year, BBC Home Service was renamed to BBC Radio 4, BBC Light Program to BBC Radio 2, BBC Third Program - BBC Radio 3, in the same year, the BBC launched its fourth radio channel on medium wave frequencies of the BBC Light Program - BBC Radio one.
In 1967, the BBC launched regional radio stations BBC Radio Sheffield, BBC Radio Leicester, BBC Radio Merseyside, in 1968 - BBC Radio Stoke, BBC Radio Leeds, BBC Radio Durham, BBC Radio Nottingham, BBC Radio Brighton (now BBC Sussex).
On November 15, 1969, the BBC launched a PAL dub of BBC One. In 1970, the BBC launched regional BB radio stations.C Radio Manchester, BBC Radio Oxford, BBC Radio Solent, BBC Radio Kent, BBC Radio Bristol, BBC Tees, BBC WM, BBC Radio London, in 1971 - BBC Radio Derby, BBC Radio Humberside, BBC Radio Lancashire, BBC Radio Newcastle, in 1973 by BBC Radio Carlisle (now BBC Radio Cumbria).
In 1974, the BBC introduced the first Ceefax teletext system. In 1980, the BBC launched the regional radio stations BBC Radio Lincolnshire and BBC Radio Norfolk.
In 1981, the BBC launched the BBC Computer Literacy Project, as a result of which Acorn Computers released the BBC Micro home computer (with software in the BBC BASIC language) that same year, which could also relay Ceefax and Prestel, and in 1986 the next model of home computers, the BBC Master, was launched. In 1982, the BBC launched regional radio stations - BBC Radio Cambridgeshire, BBC Radio Northampton, BBC Radio Guernsey, BBC Radio Jersey, in 1983 BBC Radio York, BBC Radio Cornwall, BBC Radio Devon. In the same year, a system for transferring software through Ceefax - Telesoftware was launched.
In 1985, BBC1's 405-line broadcast was discontinued. In 1985, the BBC launched regional radio stations BBC Radio Bedfordshire (now BBC Three Counties Radio) and BBC Radio Shropshire, in 1986 - BBC Essex, in 1988 - BBC Radio Gloucestershire, BBC Somerset, in 1989 - BBC Wiltshire, BBC Hereford and Worcester.
In 1987, a BBC Radio 1 version was launched on VHF. In the same year, Telesoftware was discontinued.
On August 27, 1990, the BBC launched BBC Radio 5.
On March 11, 1991, the BBC launched the international satellite channel BBC World Service Television. On 30 January 1994 it was split into BBC World and BBC Prime. On September 9, 1997, the BBC launched the BBC News satellite information channel, on September 23, the BBC Choice satellite channel, on June 1, 1999, the BBC Knowledge satellite channel, and on February 11, 2002, the CBBC satellite channel.
On November 15, 1998, digital dubs of all BBC broadcast and satellite channels were launched in the DVB-T standard. On March 2, 2002, BBC Knowledge was renamed BBC Four. On March 11 of the same year, the BBC launched the digital radio station BBC Radio 6. On February 9, 2003, BBC Choice was renamed BBC Three. In July 2004, the BBC celebrated its 82nd anniversary. This event was released on DVD. In late 2006, BBC Television, led by Joanna Bennett, merged into a larger group: BBC Vision.
During this period, the BBC's foreign television broadcasting continued to grow. On 19 June 2002, the BBC launched the international satellite channel BBC Food. In July 2003, the BBC began broadcasting programs using the Astra 2D satellite, at a cost of £85 million to the BBC. On December 1, 2004, the BBC launched the international Japanese-language satellite channel BBC Japan. On April 30, 2006, BBC Japan was closed. On 11 July 2007, the BBC launched the international satellite channels BBC Lifestyle and BBC Knowledge.
On 1 December 2007, the BBC launched BBC HD in 1080i on channel 102. On December 2, 2009, the BBC HD dub was launched in DVB-T2. On 3 November 2010, the BBC launched BBC One HD in 1080i on channel 101. On October 24, 2012, analogue analogue dubs of all BBC TV channels stopped broadcasting, by this time dubs of all BBC radio channels on medium waves (except BBC Radio 4) also stopped broadcasting. On 13 February 2013, BBC HD was rebranded as BBC Two HD.
The BBC World Service has stopped radio broadcasts in 10 languages since 2007. The money saved went to the creation of a new channel in Arabic. This year's reductions have affected mainly radio editorial offices broadcasting to the countries of Central Europe. Bulgarian, Hungarian, Greek, Polish, Slovak, Slovenian, Croatian and Czech services were closed. In addition, broadcasting in Kazakh and Thai is closed. Also, radio broadcasting in Brazil was reduced (the site of the BBC Brazilian Service was preserved) and Internet broadcasting in Hindi. All these transformations were planned to be completed by March 2006. Television foreign broadcasting continued to grow. On March 11, 2008, the BBC launched the international satellite Arabic channel BBC Arabic Television, in 2009 its broadcast became round the clock.
On April 21, 2008, BBC World was renamed BBC World News. On December 26, 2008, BBC Food closed. On January 14, 2009, the BBC launched the international Persian-language satellite channel BBC Persian Television. On November 11, 2009, BBC Prime was renamed to BBC Entertainment. In 2011, due to the reduction of the company's budget, the work of the Albanian, Macedonian and Serbian services of the BBC was completely stopped. Services that produced programs for the Caribbean region in English and for African countries in Portuguese were also closed. Seven services abandoned radio broadcasting, continuing to work on the Internet. Among them are Russian, Azerbaijaninskaya and ukrainian services of the BBC. The last broadcast of the Ukrainian and Russian services of the BBC took place on April 29, 2011.
On February 29, 2012, the corporation celebrated the 90th anniversary of the start of international broadcasting.
In 2014, the BBC launched the international TV channel BBC First, in 2015 the BBC launched the international TV channel BBC Brit, BBC Earth.